Starting today, the reporting of all gifts or payments to physicians or teaching hospitals that total over $100 in a year will be required for drug and medical device companies per the new reporting requirements for the Affordable Care Act. These donations will be posted on a publically-accessible, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services ("CMS") Internet site starting in September 2014. By decreasing the reporting threshold, this new law will likely make it harder for ethically-suspect activities to slip under public perception, at a cost of greater reporting requirements and an increase in the possible number of false accusations of unethical behavior. Because the reporting is based on the activity of the companies, physicians need not take any affirmative action or even be aware of the activity for their name to be posted.
The detection and prevention of ethics violations presents a trade off between under- and over-diagnosis. As a society, we want a system where ethical lapses are identified and resolved. However, due to the powerful stigma of accusation, it is no surprise that many physicians would prefer to avoid situations that later could be misconstrued as ethically suspect. For example, no physician wants their attendance at an educational conference to result in a random charge of violation of professional responsibilities to patients. This concern may cause physicians to avoid certain educational or other activities rather than worry about the impact of reporting on their reputation. CMS has addressed some of these issues and provided guidelines on what activities are not required to be disclosed, however, there will continue to be uncertainty until the regulation has been practiced for a while and appropriate norms and procedures are developed and agreed upon.
Gifts or payments to physicians fall into a number of different categories with varying levels of public utility. On one side, the sponsorship of medical conferences, continuing education seminars, and research grants are examples of gifts that provide significant public benefit as well as significant personal benefit to physicians. Reducing corporate sponsorship of such events will increase the cost to participants, resulting in a reduced participation in such activities. Physicians are already giving up their time and incurring the opportunity costs to improve their skills and knowledge by attending such events. The reporting aspect may further reduce attendance and learning.